Iranian *zganda- ‘mounted messenger’, *zgad- ‘to ride’ and Greek σφαδᾴζω

Аннотация

This article argues that Greek σφαδᾴζω ‘struggle, toss one’s body about’ is etymologically related to Proto-Iranian *zgad- ‘to ride, gallop’ and *zganda- ‘messenger’, the source of loanwords σαγγάνδης and ἀσγάνδης in Greek. Iranian nominal stems *zgandá - ‘rider, mounted messenger’ and *zgánda- ‘riding’ (reflected in Sogdian non-finite forms) suggest the reconstruction of a Proto-Iranian root *zgand-, the zero-grade form of which is found in tudáti-type verbal stem *zgadá-ti ‘rides, gallops’ (*zgad- < *zgn̥ d-). The correspondence between Greek σφ- and Iranian *zg- is unproblematic, since these are regular reflexes of PIE *sgwh- in both languages, compare Younger Avestan zgərəsna- ‘round, circular’ vis-à-vis Greek σφαῖρα ‘sphere, ball, globe’. Importantly, in its earliest attestations Greek σφαδᾴζω is used to refer to horses that are prancing, struggling, and moving violently: the application of the verb to human agony is demonstrably secondary. The Greek verb is best analyzed as a denominative *σφαδαι-ιζωderived from an unattested adjective *σφάδαιος, itself made from a nominal stem *σφάδη or *σφαδή, cf. ματᾴζω ‘speak foolishly’ ← μάταιος‘foolish’ ← μάτη ‘foolishness’; the underlying unattested noun, whether *σφάδη ‘kicking, tossing’ or *σφαδή ‘kick, toss’, is based on a thematic verbal stem *σφαδε/ο- ‘to kick, toss, move swiftly (of horses)’ identical in origin with Proto-Iranian *zgadá-ti. On the basis of these forms, a new PIE root *sgwhend- / *sgwh ̥n d- ‘to move quickly (of horses)’ can be reconstructed.

Ключевые слова:

etymology, Ancient Greek language, Iranian languages, Avestan, Khotanese, Sogdian, derivational morphology, denominative verb

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Опубликован
2021-12-30
Как цитировать
Nikolaev, A. (2021). Iranian *zganda- ‘mounted messenger’, *zgad- ‘to ride’ and Greek σφαδᾴζω. Philologia Classica, 16(2), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu20.2021.204
Раздел
Graecia antiqua