Draco’s Constitution and Political Ideas of Athenian Oligarchs

Аннотация

In the article which serves as a sequel to an earlier one the author argues that Draco’s constitution (DC) in Arist. AP 4 does not derive from an oligarchic political pamphlet in which it served as a prototype of a constitution to be implemented in Athens as the majority of scholars believe. The preponderance of scholars believe, relying on the alleged similarity of DC to the project of the ‘Constitution of Five Thousands’ (AP 30) in 411 BC, that DC emerged in the same ‘moderate’ oligarchic circles as a project of the same kind. Others propose later dates for its appearance but almost unanimously ascribe to oligarchic moderates who pleaded for a ‘hoplite constitution.’ The author argues contra that although DC is not reliable as a historical document, it differs considerably from the known political projects of oligarchs. Its distinguishing features make it anachronistic for conditions of 5th–4th centuries BC, but they are much more at home in the last decades of 7th BC. It is likely that Aristotle found this fictional account in one of the historical sources he used in the AP in which it was fabricated to fill a gap in the lacunose history of the early Athenian constitution and it may have been meant to diminish tendentiously Solon’s contribution, representing the latter as modifying the already existing state order.

Ключевые слова:

Aristotle, Draco’s constitution, political ideas of Athenian oligarchs, historical sources of Arist. AP

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока недоступны.
 

Литература

Blösel W. Die Hopliten in den beiden oligarchischen Umstürzen in Athen und eine mögliche Neuordnung der Zensusklassen am Ende des 5. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. in: Riess W. (Hrsg.) Colloquia Attica. Bd 2. Neuere Forschungen zu Athen im 5. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Stuttgart, Steiner, 2021, 181–196.

Busolt G. Griechische Geschichte bis zur Schlacht bei Chaeroneia II2. Gotha 1895.

Busolt G., Swoboda H. Griechische Staatskunde I–II. München, Beck, 1920–1926.

Carey C. In search of Drakon. The Cambridge Classical Journal 2013, 59, 29–51.

Cataudella M. R. Atene fra il VII e il VI secolo: aspetti economici e sociali dell’Attica arcaica. Catania, Universita di Catania, Facolt di Lettere e Filosofia, 1966.

Cecchin S. A. Patrios politeia: un tentativo propagandistico durante la guerra del Peloponneso. Torino, Paravia, 1969.

Chambers M. H. (tr., comm.), Aristoteles Werke 10/1. Staat der Athener. Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 1990.

Chambers M. H. Georg Busolt: His Career in His Letters. Leiden, Brill, 1990 [Chambers 1990a]

Chambers M. (ed.), Aristotelis ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ. Leipzig, Teubner, 21994.

Cloché P. Remarques sur la prétendue Constitution de Dracon. REA 1940, 42, 64–73.

Davies J. K. Documents and ‘documents’ in fourth-century historiography in: P. Carlier (ed.) Le IVe siècle avant Jésus-Christ: approches historiographiques, Actes du colloque international de Nancy des 28–30 septembre 1994. Nancy, ADRA — Paris, De Boccard, 1996, 29–39.

Develin R. The Constitution of Drakon. Athenaeum 1984, 62, 295–307.

Dovatour A. I. The Politics and the Politeiai of Aristotle. Moscow — Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1965 (in Russian).

Ferguson W. S. The Oligarchic Movement in Athens in: Cambridge Ancient History V, 1927, 312–347.

Figueira Th. The Strange Death of Draco on Aegina, in: R. Rosen, J. Farrell (eds), Nomodeiktes: Studies in Honor of Martin Ostwald. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1992, 287–304.

Fuks A. The Ancestral Constitution: Four Studies in Athenian Party Politics at the End of the Fifth Century B. C. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953.

Gagarin M. Writing Greek Law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Gehrke, Hans-Joachim, Stasis: Untersuchungen zu den inneren Kriegen in den griechischen Staaten des 5. und 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. München, Beck, 1985.

Gomme A. W. The Population of Athens. Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1933.

Gomme A. W., Andrewes A. A Historical Commentary on Thucydides. Vol. V. Book VIII. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981.

Habicht C. Falsche Urkunden zur Geschichte Athens im Zeitalter der Perserkrieg. Hermes 1961, 89, 1–35.

Headlam J. W. The Constitution of Draco. Ἀθ. πολ. ch. 4. CR 1891, 5, 166–168.

Heftner H. Der oligarchische Umsturz des Jahres 411 v. Chr. und die Herrschaft der Vierhundert in Athen: quellenkritische und historische Untersuchungen. Frankfurt a. M., Lang, 2001.

Heftner H. Oligarchen, Mesoi, Autokraten: Bemerkungen zur antidemokratischen Bewegung des sp ten 5. Jh. v. Chr. in Athen. Chiron 2003, 33, 1–41.

Heftner H. Hopliten und Hippeis unter dem Regime der 30 Tyrannen. Tyche 2011, 26, 141–164.

Hölkeskamp K.-J. Schiedsrichter, Gesetzgeber und Gesetzgebung im archaichen Griechenland. Stuttgart, Steiner, 1999.

Hurni F. Comment les Cinq-Mille furent-ils sélectionnés en 411? Museum Helveticum 1991, 48, 220–227.

Jacoby F. Atthis: The Local Chronicles of Ancient Athens. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1949.

Kroll J. H., Waggoner N. M. Dating the Earliest Coins of Athens, Corinth and Aegina. American Journal of Archaeology 1984, 88, 325–340.

Lambert S. D. The Phratries of Attica. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1993.

Lambert S. D. Inscribed Athenian Laws and Decrees in the Age of Demosthenes: Historical Essays. Leiden, Brill, 2018.

Leão D. F., Rhodes P. J. The Laws of Solon: A New Edition with Introduction, Translation and Commentary. London; New York, Tauris, 2015.

Ledl A. Studien zur älteren athenischen Verfassungsgeschichte. Heidelberg, Winter, 1914.

Meyer Ed. Forschungen zur alten Geschichte I. Halle, Niemeyer, 1892.

Németh G. Kritias und die Dreissig Tyrannen: Untersuchungen zur Politik und Prosopographie der Führungselite in Athen 404/403 v. Chr. Stuttgart, Steiner, 2006.

Partsch, Josef, Griechisches Bürgschaftsrecht. 1. Teil. Das Recht des altgriechischen Gemeindestaats. Leipzig, Teubner, 1909.

Poddighe E. Nel segno di Antipatro: L’eclissi della democrazia ateniese dal 323/2 al 319/8 a.C. Roma, Carocci, 2002.

Poddighe E. Aristotele, Atene e le metamorfosi dell‘idea democratica. Da Solone a Pericle (594–451 a.C.). Roma, Carocci, 2014.

Rhodes P. J. The Athenian Boule. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1972, reissued with addenda 1985.

Rhodes P. J. A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981, reissued with addenda 1993.

Rhodes P. J. The Reforms and Laws of Solon: an Optimistic View in: J. H. Blok, A. Lardinois (ed.) Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches. Leiden, Brill, 2006.

Rhodes P. J. The Athenian Constitution Written in the School of Aristotle. With an introduction, translation and notes. Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 2017.

Robertson N. False Documents at Athens: Fifth-Century History and Fourth-Century Publicists. Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques. 1976, 3, 3–25.

Ruschenbusch E. Patrios Politeia: Theseus, Drakon, Solon und Kleisthenes in Publizistik und Geschichtschreibung des 5. und 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. Historia 1958, 1, 398–424.

Ruschenbusch E. ΣΟΛΟΝΟΣ ΝΟΜΟΙ: die Fragmente des Solonischen Gesetzeswerkes mit einer Text- und berlieferungsgeschichte. Wiesbaden, Steiner, 1966.

Russell D. A. Greek Declamation. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Rizzo F. P. La costituzione di Draconte nel c. IV dell’Athenaion Politeia di Aristotele. Memorie dell’Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. Classe di scienze morali e storiche 1963, 27, 271–308.

Robinson E. The First Democracies: Early Popular Government outside Athens. Stuttgart, Steiner, 1997.

Sancho Rocher, Stasis y krasis en Tucidides (8.97.1–2). Habis 1994, 25, 41–69.

Schöpsdau K. (tr., comm.), Platon. Nomoi (Gesetze). Übersetzung und Kommentar. Vol. I–II. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994–2011.

Schütrumpf E., Gehrke H. J. (tr., comm.), Aristoteles Werke. 9. 3. Politik, Buch IV–VI. Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 1996.

Seeck O. Quellenstudien zu des Aristoteles’ Verfassungsgeschichte Athens. Klio1904, 4, 164–181, 270–326.

Sickinger J. P. Public Records and Archives in Classical Athens. Chapel Hill — London, University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Simonton M. Classical Greek Oligarchy: A Political History. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2017.

Staveley E. S. Greek and Roman Voting and Elections. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 1972.

Ste Croix G. E. M. de, Athenian Democratic Origins: and Other Essays. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2004.

Stroud R. S. Drakon’s Law on Homicide. University of California Publications: Classical Studies 3. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1968.

Sundwall, De institutis reipublicae Atheniensium post Aristotelis aetatem commutatis, Acta Scientiarum Fennicae, 1907, XXXIV, 4, 22.

Valdés Guıa M., Gallego J., Zeugitai and Solonian Census-Classes. Historia. 2010, 59, 257–281.

Van Wees H. Demetrius and Draco: Athens’ Property Classes and Population in and before 317 BC. JHS 2011, 131, 95–114.

Verlinsky A. Draco’s Constitution in the Athenaion Politeia 4: Is It an Interpolation or an Author’s Later Addition? Hyperboreus, 2017, 23, 142–173.

Wade-Gery H. Eupatridai, Archons, and Areopagus. CQ 1931, 25, 1–11; 77–89.

Wallace R. W. The Areopagos Council: To 307 B. C. Baltimore — London, John Hopkins UP, 1989.

Wallace R. W. Aristotelian politeiai and Athenaion Politeia 4, in: R. Rosen, J. Farrell (eds), Nomodeiktes: Studies in Honor of Martin Ostwald. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1992, 269–286.

Wehrli F. Die Schule des Aristoteles. Bd. 4. Demetrios von Phaleron. 2. Aufl. Basel, Schwabe, 1968.

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff U. von. Aristoteles und Athen I–II. Berlin, Weidmann, 1893.

Опубликован
2021-12-30
Как цитировать
Verlinsky, A. (2021). Draco’s Constitution and Political Ideas of Athenian Oligarchs. Philologia Classica, 16(2), 186-206. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu20.2021.202
Раздел
Graecia antiqua