“The Messengers are Called Sangandai”: the Greek σαγγάνδης and its Relationship to  ἀσγάνδης/ ἀστάνδης

  • Rafał Rosół Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Classical Philology, Fredry 10, 61505 Poznań, Poland

Аннотация

This article examines the Greek noun σαγγάνδης ‘messenger’ which is attested in two lexica, dated to the Roman or early Byzantine periods: the Cambridge Rhetorical Lexicon by an anonymous author and Difficult Words in the Attic Orators by Claudius Casilo. In both works, σαγγάνδης appears together with three words of likely Iranian provenance: ὀροσάγγης ‘benefactor of the Persian king; bodyguard’, παρασάγγης ‘parasang; messenger’ and ἄγγαρος ‘messenger, courier; workman, labourer’. The word σαγγάνδης is analysed in comparison with ἀσγάνδης/ ἀστάνδης ‘messenger’ occurring for the first time in Plutarch’s works and closely linked to the Achaemenid administration. According to the hypothesis put forward in the present paper, both σαγγάνδης and  σγάνδης (with its secondary variant  στάνδης) are connected to Manichaean Middle Persian/Parthian ižgand ‘messenger’, Sogdian (a)žγand/(ɔ) žγand/ž(i)γant ‘id.’, Jewish Aramaic ʾîzgaddā ‘id.’, Syriac izgandā/izgaddā ‘id.’, Mandaic ašganda ‘helper, assistant, servant; the Messenger’, and go back to Old Persian *zganda- or to early Middle Persian/early Parthian *žgand- (or *zgand-) with the original meaning ‘mounted messenger’. The reconstructed noun is derived from the Proto-Iranian root *zga(n)d- ‘to go on, gallop, mount’, attested in Avestan (Younger Avestan zgaδ(/θ)- ‘to go on horseback, gallop’) and in some Middle and Modern Iranian languages. The original form of the loanword in Greek was probably *σγάνδης which then underwent certain transformations.

Ключевые слова:

etymology, foreign words in Greek, Iranian loanwords, Greek lexicography

Скачивания

Данные скачивания пока недоступны.
 

Литература

Bailey H. W. Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge, CUP, 1979.

Bartholomae Ch. Altiranisches Wörterbuch. Strassburg, Trübner, 1904.

Bedrossian M. New Dictionary Armenian-English. Venice, Lazarus Armenian Academy, 1875–79.

Beekes R. Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of L. van Beek. Vol. I–II, Leiden — Boston, Brill, 2010.

Börm H. Prokop und die Perser. Untersuchungen zu den römisch-sasanidischen Kontakten in der ausgehenden Spätantike. Stuttgart, Steiner, 2007.

Brockelmann C. Lexicon Syriacum. Halle, Niemeyer, 21928.

Brust M. Die indischen und iranischen Lehnwörter im Griechischen, Innsbruck, Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der UI, 22008.

Chantraine P. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Histoire des mots, avec un Supplément sous la direction de A. Blanc et al. Paris, Klincksieck, 21999.

Cheung J. Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden — Boston, Brill, 2007.

Ciancaglini C. A. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 2008.

Cook E. M. A Glossary of Targum Onkelos. Leiden — Boston, Brill, 2008.

Drower E. S., Macuch R. A Mandaic Dictionary, Oxford, Clarendon, 1963.

Durkin-Meisterenst D. Dictionary of Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian. Turnhout, Brepols, 2004.

Eilers W. Iranisches Lehngut im arabischen Lexikon: Über einige Berufsnamen und Titel. IIJ 1961–62, 5, 203–232.

Frisk H. Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Vol. 1–3, Heidelberg, Winter, 1960–72.

Gelb I. J. et. al. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Vol. I–XXI, Chicago — Glückstadt, The Oriental Institute — Augustin Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1956–2010.

Gershevitch I. A Grammar of Manichean Sogdian. Oxford, Blackwell, 1954.

Gharib B. Sogdian Dictionary. Tehran, Farhangan Publications, 1995.

Gignoux Ph. Glossaire des inscriptions Pehlevies et Parthes. London, School of Oriental and African Studies UL, 1972.

Gray L. H. Indo-Iranian Phonology with Special Reference to the Middle and New Indo-Iranian Languages. New York, CUP, 1902.

Happ H. Zu ἀσγάνδης, ἀσκανδής, ἀστάνδης = “Bote”. Glotta 1962, 40, 198–201.

Happ H. Rec. Frisk 1960–72. IF 1963, 68, 95–99.

Henning W. B. Ein manichäisches Bet- und Beichtbuch. Berlin, De Gruyter (APAW 10), 1936.

Henning W. B. Sogdica. London, Royal Asiatic Society, 1940.

Hintze A. Der Zamyād-Yašt. Edition, Übersetzung, Kommentar. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 1994.

Hinz W. Altiranisches Sprachgut der Nebenüberlieferungen. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1975.

Hoftijzer J., Jongeling K. Dictionary of the North-West Semitic Inscriptions. Vol 1–2, Leiden, Brill, 1995.

Horn P. Grundriss der neupersischen Etymologie. Strassburg, Trübner, 1893.

Hübschmann H. Armenische Grammatik. Part l: Armenische Etymologie. Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel, 1897.

Huyse Ph. Persisches Wortgut in Athenaios’ “Deipnosophistai”. Glotta 1990, 68, 93–104.

Huyse Ph. Von angaros und anderen iranischen Boten. HS 1993, 106, 272–284.

Jastrow M. A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Zerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. Vol. 1–2, London — New York, Luzac — Putnam’s Sons, 1903.

Kaufman S. A. The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic. Chicago — London, UCP, 1974.

Kellens J. Le verbe avestique. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 1984.

Kellens J. Liste du verbe avestique, avec un appendice sur l’orthographe des racines avestiques par E. Pirart. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 1995.

MacKenzie D. N. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. Oxford, OUP, 21986.

Macuch R. Zur Sprache und Literatur der Mandäer. Berlin — New York, De Gruyter, 1976.

Mancini M. A proposito di prestiti partici in mandaico: hambaga. AION 1995, 55, 82–95.

Mancini M. Etimologia e semantica del gr. ἄγγαρος. Glotta 1995–96, 73, 210–222.

Morgenstierne G. A New Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto, compiled and edited by J. Elfenbein, D. N. Mac-Kenzie, N. Sims-Williams, Wiesbaden, Reichert, 2003.

Narten J. Der Yasna Haptanhāiti, Wiesbaden, Reichert, 1986.

Nyberg H. S. A Manual of Pahlavi. Part 2, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1974.

Powell M. A. Der neubabylonische Familienname Ašgandu und die Urkundengruppe Nbn 314, TCL xii 122, Nbn 668. ArOr 1972, 40, 124–129.

Schmid W. P. Zu griech. στάνδης “Bote”. Glotta 1962, 40, 321.

Schmitt R. Onomastica Iranica Platonica, in: Ch. Mueller-Goldingen, K. Sier (eds), Ληναικά. Festschrift für C. W. Müller. Stuttgart — Leipzig, 1996, 81–102.

Schmitt R. Xerxes i. The Name, in: Encyclopædia Iranica 2000. Available at: https://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/xerxes-1-name (accessed on 30 August 2020).

Schmitt R. Greece XII. Persian Loanwords and Names in Greek, in: Encyclopædia Iranica 2002a. Available at: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/greece-xii (accessed on 30 August 2020).

Schmitt R. Zoroaster i. The Name, in: Encyclopædia Iranica 2002b. Available at: https://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/zoroaster-i-the-name (accessed on 30 August 2020)

Schmitt R. Wörterbuch der altpersischen Königsinschriften. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 2014.

Sims-Williams N. A Dictionary: Christian Sogdian, Syriac and English. Wiesbaden, Reichert, 22021.

Skjærvø P. O. Aramaic Scripts for Iranian Languages, in: P. T. Daniels and W. Bright (eds.), The World’s Writing Systems. New York — Oxford, OUP 1996, 515–535.

Skjærvø P. O. Middle West Iranian, in: G. Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian Languages. London — New York, OUP 2009, 196–278.

Sokoloff M. A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period, Ramat-Gan, Bar Ilan UP, 1990.

Sokoloff M. A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods, Ramat-Gan, Bar Ilan UP, 2002.

Sokoloff M. A Syriac Lexicon. A Translation from the Latin, Correction, Expansion, and Update of C. Brockelmann’s Lexicon Syriacum. Winona Lake — Piscataway, Eisenbrauns, 2009.

Sundermann W. Artēštārān sālār, in: Encyclopædia Iranica 1986. Available at: https://iranicaonline.org/articles/artestaran-salar-chief-of-the-warriors-a-high-ranking-title-in-sasanian-times-see-artestar- (accessed on 30 August 2020).

von Soden W. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. Vol. 1–3, Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz, 1965–81.

Tavernier J. Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca. 550-330 BC): Lexicon of Old Iranian Proper Names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts, Leuven — Paris — Dudley (MA), Peeters, 2007.

Zadok R. On the Connections between Iran and Babylonia in the Sixth Century B. C. Iran 1976, 14, 61–78.

Zadok R. The Jews in Babylonia during the Chaldean and Achaemenian Periods according to the Babylonian Sources. Haifa, HUP, 1979.

Опубликован
2021-07-28
Как цитировать
Rosół, R. (2021). “The Messengers are Called Sangandai”: the Greek σαγγάνδης and its Relationship to  ἀσγάνδης/ ἀστάνδης. Philologia Classica, 16(1), 40-49. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu20.2021.104
Раздел
Graecia antiqua